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Alzheimer y Radiación

Marcapasos y Campos Electromagnéticos (EMF)

15 de Febrero de 2006 - Día Internacional del niño con cancer

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· 24 DE JUNIO - PATRAIX - DÍA INTERNACIONAL CONTRA LA CONTAMINACIÓN ELECTROMAGNÉTI
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Mensaje Publicado: Mar, 08 Ene 2008 4:38 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

China
Japón

Publicado en:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=18158590&itool=pubmed_DocSum
2007 Nov-Dec;51(6):412-6. Epub 2007 Dec 21.


Proteomic analysis of human lens epithelial cells exposed to microwaves

.Li HW, Yao K, Jin HY, Sun LX, Lu DQ, Yu YB.
Eye Center, Affiliated Second Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, xlren@zju.edu.cn.

PURPOSE: To study proteomic changes in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) exposed to 1800-MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)-like microwaves. METHODS: In three separate experiments, HLECs were exposed and sham-exposed (six dishes each) to 1800-MHz GSM-like radiation for 2 h. The specific absorption rates were 1.0, 2.0, or 3.5 W/kg. Immediately after radiation, the proteome was extracted from the HLECs. Immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(2-DE; silver staining) and PDQuest 2-DE analysis software were used to separate and analyze the proteome of exposed and sham-exposed HLECs. Four differentially expressed protein spots were selected and identified by using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). RESULTS: When the protein profiles of exposed cells were compared with those of sham-exposed cells, four proteins were detected as upregulated. After analysis by ESI-MS-MS and through a database search, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) were determined to be upregulated in the exposed cells. CONCLUSIONS: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for screening potential electromagnetic-reaction protein markers. HSP70 and hnRNP K are involved in the stress reaction of HLECs exposed to microwaves. These cell responses are nonthermal effects of the electromagnetic field. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2007;51:412-416 (c) Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2007.

PMID: 18158590 [PubMed - in process]
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Mensaje Publicado: Mar, 08 Ene 2008 4:41 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

Israel

Publicado en:
http://www.rrjournal.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1667%2FRR0872.1&ct=1&SESSID=172290c080229825a605f3099528fef5
Received: November 1, 2006; Accepted: September 4, 2007
January,2008

Increased Levels of Numerical Chromosome Aberrations after In Vitro Exposure of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields for 72 Hours
Ronit Mazora, Avital Korenstein-Ilana, Alexander Barbula, Yael Eshetb, Avi Shahadib, Eli Jerbyb, and Rafi Korensteina

a. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel, b. Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Israel

Mazor, R., Korenstein-Ilan, A., Barbul, A., Eshet, Y., Shahadi, A., Jerby, E. and Korenstein, R. Increased Levels of Numerical Chromosome Aberrations after In Vitro Exposure of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields for 72 Hours. Radiat. Res. 169, 28–37 (2008).

We investigated the effects of 72 h in vitro exposure of 10 human lymphocyte samples to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (800 MHz, continuous wave) on genomic instability. The lymphyocytes were exposed in a specially designed waveguide resonator at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 2.9 and 4.1 W/kg in a temperature range of 36–37°C. The induced aneuploidy of chromosomes 1, 10, 11 and 17 was determined by interphase FISH using semi-automated image analysis. We observed increased levels of aneuploidy depending on the chromosome studied as well as on the level of exposure. In chromosomes 1 and 10, there was increased aneuploidy at the higher SAR, while for chromosomes 11 and 17, the increases were observed only for the lower SAR. Multisomy (chromosomal gains) appeared to be the primary contributor to the increased aneuploidy. The effect of temperature on the level of aneuploidy was examined over the range of 33.5–40°C for 72 h with no statistically significant difference in the level of aneuploidy compared to 37°C. These findings suggest the possible existence of an athermal effect of RF radiation that causes increased levels of aneuploidy. These results contribute to the assessment of potential health risks after continuous chronic exposure to RF radiation at SARs close to the current levels set by ICNIRP guidelines.
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Mensaje Publicado: Mar, 08 Ene 2008 4:46 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

U.K.

Publicado en:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/science/newsid_6676000/6676299.stm
21/05/2007

Posibles riesgos del mundo WiFi
BBC Mundo Ciencia

No se conoce lo suficiente sobre los posibles efectos en la salud de la tecnología WiFi.

Ésa es la advertencia del presidente de la Agencia de Protección Sanitaria de Gran Bretaña.


Según William Stewart, quien dirigió la investigación del gobierno británico sobre los efectos a la salud de los teléfonos móviles, debemos tener la misma actitud precautoria que adoptamos ante estos últimos.

La tecnología WiFi, del inglés Wireless Fidelity o fidelidad inalámbrica, ofrece la posibilidad de conexiones rápidas a través de señales de radio, y no requiere cables o enchufes.

Gran Bretaña, igual que muchos otros países del mundo, ha adoptado esta tecnología y cada vez más escuelas, universidades, y hogares se han unido a la revolución inalámbrica.

Sin embargo, los expertos afirman que los efectos a largo plazo de la tecnología no han sido suficientemente investigados.


En particular se mencionan los posibles riesgos a la salud de los niños que asisten a escuelas con redes inalámbricas.

Radiación


La radiofrecuencia de los teléfonos móviles, las torres de telefonía móvil y las redes WiFi emiten radiación.

Una investigación del programa de la BBC "Panorama" encontró que los niveles de radiación en un salón de clases de una escuela en Inglaterra eran tres veces más altos que los niveles de radiación emitidos por una torre de telefonía celular.


Los expertos afirman, sin embargo, que incluso estos niveles en ese salón están por debajo de los límites que se consideran seguros en este país.

El debate sobre los efectos de la tecnología inalámbrica no es nuevo.


Siempre se ha dicho que no se debe permitir que la radiación de una torre de telefonía móvil llegue al los patios de las escuelas.

Y ahora, mientras no se demuestre lo contrario, los expertos afirman que debemos tomar con precaución las posibles consecuencias de la radiación de la tecnología inalámbrica.
El problema es que quizás ya es un poco tarde, porque muchas escuelas alrededor del mundo se han unido a la revolución inalámbrica.

En Gran Bretaña, casi 50% de las escuelas primarias y 70% de las secundarias tienen tecnología WiFi.

Además, muchos niños que ya están rodeados de estas emisiones en la escuela, regresarán a casa donde quizás también habrá radiación WiFi.


Sobre la mesa

Lo que se sabe hasta ahora es que la exposición de las emisiones WiFi a menudo es muy pequeña, ya que los transmisores son de baja potencia y se colocan a cierta distancia del cuerpo.

También pueden estar más cerca, por ejemplo, cuando nos colocamos nuestra laptop en las piernas.

Por eso, dicen los expertos, es mejor alentar a los niños que usen su computadora en una mesa si van a estar conectados a internet durante mucho tiempo.

Algunos países, sin embargo, ya han adoptado medidas precautorias más estrictas.


Los estudiantes de la Universidad Lakehead, en Ontario, Canadá, tienen prohibido conectarse a internet en varias zonas del campus universitario donde se ha eliminado el uso de tecnología WiFi.

Según el rector de la misma, "la radiación de microondas en el rango de frecuencia de WiFi causa cambios de conducta, altera las funciones cognitivas, activa la respuesta de estrés e interfiere con las ondas cerebrales".
Las autoridades universitarias afirman que no se usarán redes inalámbricas hasta que se demuestre que estas ondas no son dañinas para la salud.


Precaución



Hasta ahora, sin embargo, no se ha logrado demostrar que la WiFi sea perjudicial.


Según el profesor Henry Lai, de la Universidad Estatal de Washington, quien ha estudiado los posibles efectos a la salud de las redes WiFi, afirma que las investigaciones hasta ahora no han sido concluyentes.

"Debe haber por lo menos unos tres mil estudios llevados a cabo durante los pasados 20 años sobre estos efectos", afirma el experto.

"Y hasta ahora, el 50% de estos encontró algún efecto perjudicial, y el 50% no encontró ningún efecto en absoluto", agrega.

El gobierno británico afirma que mientras las emisiones de radiación estén por debajo de los límites que se consideran seguros, no existen riesgos a la salud.


Pero, tal como preguntamos al profesor Lai, ¿permitirá que sus hijos se sienten frente a una computadora inalámbrica durante todos sus años escolares?

"No lo creo -afirma- yo limitaría su exposición a este tipo de radiación, porque más vale ser precavidos".
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Mensaje Publicado: Mar, 08 Ene 2008 5:15 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

Cell Phone Use Increases Likelihood of Mouth Cancer
Publicado en:
http://www.newsinferno.com/archives/2217
Date Published: Monday, December 17th, 2007

Cell phone use raises the risk of mouth cancer, a new study has found. Five years of heavy use increased the chances of developing a tumor by around 50 percent compared with people who had never used a mobile phone, scientists found. The study is the latest to link cell phone use to a serious disease, and raises concerns that mobile phones could be interfering with the body in ways that scientists simply do not yet understand.
Previous studies into the links between phones and cancer have generated conflicting results with the vast majority claiming to have found no evidence of serious health risks. A number of studies have found links between cell phone usage and cancers of the head and ear. The latest research, carried out in Israel, was published in the respected American Journal of Epidemiology.


The lifestyles of 402 people with benign mouth tumors and 56 with malignant tumors were compared to a control group of 1,266 people. Those who used mobile phones were more likely than normal to develop parotid gland tumors. The parotid is the largest of the salivary glands and sits at the back of the mouth not far from the ear. Long-term users of mobile phones tended to develop tumors on the same side of the head as the phone was normally held. People who used mobile phones in rural areas, where the phone has to work harder to make contact with the nearest base station, were found to be at greater risk. The cause of the heightened risk was not established.

Most studies have looked at the way the electromagnetic fields created by phones warm tissue; however, the levels of the fields are thought too small to have a heating effect. Instead, some researchers believe the fields have the power to disrupt chemical bonds within cells or damage DNA. The lead researcher—Dr. Siegal Sadetzki, from the Chaim Sheba Medical Centre in Tel Hashomer, Israel—urges caution regarding drawing conclusions. A similar study published a year ago in the same journal and based on mouth cancer sufferers in Denmark and Sweden found no increased risk. But campaigners against mobile use leapt on the findings.

Graham Philips of PowerWatch—a nonprofit, independent advocacy group working in the United Kingdom’s electromagnetic field and microwave radiation health debate—states that this is additional and stronger evidence that mobile phones “This is more evidence - and strong evidence too - that mobile phones have a biological effect,” said Graham Philips of Powerwatch. “It brings into question once again the official guidelines on safe exposure which are based on the heating effects, not the non-thermal effects that they seem to have shown here.”

Other scientists urged caution as the cancers studied are extremely rare. Only 400 parotid tumor cases are diagnosed each year in the United Kingdom and, of these, only 60 are found to be malignant. The advice from the Department of Health is that there is still no evidence that mobile phones pose a health risk; however, a Government funded six-year study in September found a hint of a higher cancer risk and concluded that a danger cannot be ruled out.

This entry was posted on Monday, December 17th, 2007 at 11:30 am
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Mensaje Publicado: Jue, 10 Ene 2008 5:08 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

U.K.

Publicado en:
http://www.bbemg.ulg.ac.be/UK/3EMFHealth/BBEMG2007(3)UK.pdf
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007; 49: 280-286.

PATERNAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FIELDS AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CANCER IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM THE NORTH OF ENGLAND.
Pearce MS, Hammal DM, Dorak MT, McNally RJ, Parker L.

Numerous studies have implied that paternal occupational exposures, in particular electromagnetic fields (EMF) and ionizing radiation, may be involved in the etiology of childhood cancers. The authors investigated whether an association exists between paternal occupations at birth involving such exposures and cancer risk in offspring, using data from the Northern Region Young Persons' Malignant Disease Registry (NRYPMDR).

Cases (n=4,723) were matched, on sex and year of birth, to controls from two independent sources: (i) all other patients from the NRYPMDR with a different cancer, (ii) 100 cancer-free individuals per case from the Cumbrian Births Database. An occupational exposure matrix was used to assign individuals to exposure groups.

There was an increased risk of leukemia among the offspring of men employed in occupations likely to be associated with EMF or radiation exposures (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.69), particularly in males aged less than 6 years (OR 1.81, 95% 1.19-2.75). No significant association was seen in females. Increased risks were also seen for chondrosarcoma (OR 8.7, 95% CI 1.55-49.4) and renal carcinoma (OR 6.75, 95% CI 1.73-26.0). These associations were consistent between control groups and remained after adjustment for socio-economic status.

Conclusions: This large case-control study identified a significantly increased risk of leukemia among the offspring of men likely to have been occupationally exposed to EMF, with differing associations between males and females. Increased risks of chondrosarcoma and renal carcinoma were also seen, although based on smaller numbers. Further detailed investigations in this area are required to understand this association.
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Mensaje Publicado: Mie, 16 Ene 2008 11:05 am Responder citandoVolver arriba

Overview of the epidemiologic studies on the health effects of ELF magnetic and electric fields published in the fourth trimester of 2007

Fuente:
http://www.bbemg.ulg.ac.be/UK/3EMFHealth/BBEMG2007(4)UK.pdf
Lowenthal RM, Tuck DM, Bray IC.
Intern Med J. 2007; 37: 614-619.


Dr. Maurits De Ridder
Occupational and Environmental Health Section
Ghent University

1. Residential exposure

RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION LINES AND RISK OF LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE AND MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY.


Studies have shown an association between electromagnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) or myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) associated with residence <or>300 m from a power line, those who had ever lived within 50 m had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.06 (95% confidence interval 0.87-4.91) for developing LPD or MPD (based on 768 adult case-control pairs); those who had lived between 50 and 300 m had an OR of 1.30 (0.88-1.91). Adults who had lived within 300 m of a power line during the first 15 years of life had a threefold increase in risk (OR 3.23; 1.26-8.29); those who had lived within the same distance aged 0-5 years had a fivefold increase in risk (OR 4.74; 0.98-22.9). These associations were strengthened when analyses were repeated for 201 pairs with entirely Tasmanian residential histories.

Conclusion: Although recognizing that this study has limitations, the results raise the possibility that prolonged residence close to high-voltage power lines, especially early in life, may increase the risk of the development of MPD and LPD later.
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Mensaje Publicado: Lun, 21 Ene 2008 6:03 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

U.K.

Mobile phone radiation wrecks your sleep

Publicado en:
http://news.independent.co.uk/sci_tech/article3353768.ece
By Geoffrey Lean, Environment Editor
Published: 20 January 2008

Phone makers' own scientists discover that bedtime use can lead to headaches, confusion and depression

Radiation from mobile phones delays and reduces sleep, and causes headaches and confusion, according to a new study.

The research, sponsored by the mobile phone companies themselves, shows that using the handsets before bed causes people to take longer to reach the deeper stages of sleep and to spend less time in them, interfering with the body's ability to repair damage suffered during the day.

The findings are especially alarming for children and teenagers, most of whom – surveys suggest – use their phones late at night and who especially need sleep. Their failure to get enough can lead to mood and personality changes, ADHD-like symptoms, depression, lack of concentration and poor academic performance.

The study – carried out by scientists from the blue-chip Karolinska Institute and Uppsala University in Sweden and from Wayne State University in Michigan, USA – is thought to be the most comprehensive of its kind.

Published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium and funded by the Mobile Manufacturers Forum, representing the main handset companies, it has caused serious concern among top sleep experts, one of whom said that there was now "more than sufficient evidence" to show that the radiation "affects deep sleep".

The scientists studied 35 men and 36 women aged between 18 and 45. Some were exposed to radiation that exactly mimicked what is received when using mobile phones; others were placed in precisely the same conditions, but given only "sham" exposure, receiving no radiation at all.

The people who had received the radiation took longer to enter the first of the deeper stages of sleep, and spent less time in the deepest one. The scientists concluded: "The study indicates that during laboratory exposure to 884 MHz wireless signals components of sleep believed to be important for recovery from daily wear and tear are adversely affected."

The embarrassed Mobile Manufacturers Forum played down the results, insisting – at apparent variance with this published conclusion – that its "results were inconclusive" and that "the researchers did not claim that exposure caused sleep disturbance".

But Professor Bengt Arnetz, who led the study, says: "We did find an effect from mobile phones from exposure scenarios that were realistic. This suggests that they have measurable effects on the brain."

He believes that the radiation may activate the brain's stress system, "making people more alert and more focused, and decreasing their ability to wind down and fall asleep".

About half of the people studied believed themselves to be "electrosensitive", reporting symptoms such as headaches and impaired cognitive function from mobile phone use. But they proved to be unable to tell if they had been exposed to the radiation in the test.

This strengthens the conclusion of the study, as it disposes of any suggestion that knowledge of exposure influenced sleeping patterns. Even more significantly, it throws into doubt the relevance of studies the industry relies on to maintain that the radiation has no measurable effects.

A series of them – most notably a recent highly publicised study at Essex University – have similarly found that people claiming to be electrosensitive could not distinguish when the radiation was turned on in laboratory conditions, suggesting that they were not affected.

Critics have attacked the studies' methodology, but the new findings deal them a serious blow. For they show that the radiation did have an effect, even though people could not tell when they were exposed.

It also complements other recent research. A massive study, following 1,656 Belgian teenagers for a year, found most of them used their phones after going to bed. It concluded that those who did this once a week were more than three times – and those who used them more often more than five times – as likely to be "very tired".

Dr Chris Idzikowski, the director of the Edinburgh Sleep Centre, says: "There is now more than sufficient evidence, from a large number of reputable investigators who are finding that mobile phone exposure an hour before sleep adversely affects deep sleep."

Dr William Kohler of the Florida Sleep Institute added: "Anything that disrupts the integrity of your sleep will potentially have adverse consequences in functioning during the day, such as grouchiness, difficulty concentrating, and in children hyperactivity and behaviour problems."

David Schick, the chief executive of Exradia, which manufactures protective devices against the radiation, called on ministers to conduct "a formal public inquiry" into the effects of mobile phones.
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Mensaje Publicado: Mar, 22 Ene 2008 5:28 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

Bélgica


Versión holandesa:


Publicado en:
http://www.bbemg.ulg.ac.be/NL/3EMGezondheid/BBEMG2007(4)NL.pdf
Overzicht epidemiologische studies
Vierde trimester 2007

Dr.Maurits De Ridder
Afdeling Arbeids-,Verzekerings- en Milieugezondheidkunde
Universiteit Gent

Residentiële blootstelling

RESIDENTIELE BLOOTSTELLING AAN HOOGSPANNING TRANSMISSIE LIJNEN EN
HET RISICO OP LYMFOPROLIFERATIEVE EN MYELOPROLIFERATIEVE
AANDOENINGEN, EEN GEVALLEN-CONTROLES STUDIE.


Lowenthal RM, Tuck DM, Bray IC.
Intern Med J. 2007; 37: 614-619

Studies hebben een associatie aangetoond tussen elektromagnetische velden en kinderleukemie. Het doel van deze studie was na te gaan of er een verhoogd risico op lymfoproliferatieve aandoeningen (LPA) of myeloproliferatieve aandoeningen (MPA) optreedt als men woont op een afstand van 300 meter of minder van een hoogspanningslijn.
De gevallen-controles studie omvatte 854 patiënten met LPA of MPA (inclusief leukemie, lymfoom en gelijkaardige aandoeningen) met een leeftijd van 0 tot 94 jaar, zijnde alle gevallen die tussen 1972 en 1980 in Tasmanië zijn gediagnosticeerd. De controles werden individueel gematcht voor geslacht en leeftijd op het ogenblik van diagnose.
Vergeleken met degenen die altijd gewoond hebben op een afstand van de hoogspanningslijn van meer dan 300 meter hebben degenen die ooit gewoond hebben op een afstand van minder dan 50 meter een odds ratio van 2,06 (95% betrouwbaarheidsinterval 0,87-4,91) voor het ontwikkelen van LPA of MPA (gebaseerd op 768 volwassen gevallen-controles paren). Zij die woonden op een afstand tussen 50 en 300 meter hadden een odds ratio van 1,30 (0,98-1,91).
Volwassenen die gewoond hebben op minder dan 300 meter van een
hoogspanningslijn gedurende de eerste 15 jaar van hun leven hadden verhoogd risico met een odds ratio van 3,23 (1,26-8,29). Zij die er gewoond hebben in de leeftijdsperiode 0 tot 5 jaar had een odds ratio 4,74 (0,98-22,9). Deze associaties werden versterkt wanneer de analyse herhaald werd voor de 201 paren die steeds in Tasmanië gewoond hadden.
Conclusie: Alhoewel dat deze studie vele beperkingen heeft duiden de resultaten op de mogelijkheid van een verband tussen langdurig verblijf dicht bij een hoogspanningslijn, vooral in de eerste levensjaren, en een verhoogd risico op het ontwikkelen van LPA en MPA op latere leeftijd.
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Mensaje Publicado: Jue, 24 Ene 2008 7:06 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

U.K

Fuente:
http://www.avaate.org/article.php3?id_article=1113
24·01·2008


An Independent Analysis of the Interphone Studies to Date

An Examination of Poor Study Design Resulting in an Underestimates of the Risk of Brain Tumors

Lloyd Morgan, January 23, 2008

Introduction

INTERPHONE is a 13-country case-control study examining the risk of acoustic neuroma, glioma, meningioma and parotid gland tumors from cellphone use. Eleven studies [1-11] have been published on the risk of brain tumors from cellphone use and two studies on the risk of parotid gland tumors (a salivary gland located near to the ear). [12-13]. Two of the eleven Interphones studies were studies of 5 countries [1,2], which partially overlap other studies. Therefore this examination focuses on 9 studies for risk of a brain tumor from cellphone use. That all 11 of the studies showed use of a cellphone provided ?protection? from a brain tumor and reported there was "no risk" for brain tumors from "regular" cellphone use, [1-11] is a fraud perpetrated on the public. This should not be a surprise, given that a substantial proportion of the cost of these studies has been paid for by the cellphone industry. As I will show, there are six major flaws in these studies, five of which underestimate the risk of tumors. Yet, as we will see, and this is very alarming, in spite of these flaws, where the tumors are on the same side of the head where the cellphone was held and the phone was used for 10 year or more, all of the results show a risk of tumors. Before we examine the flaws I will discuss how you can detect flaws similar to what exists within the Interphone Protocol. First, examine the full set of odds ratios (ORs) within any single study, or better yet, combinations of Interphone studies. An odds ratio (OR) is a ratio that measures the odds of cellphone radiation exposure for cases compared to controls. In effect, it is the risk of tumors from cellphone use. Cases are subjects with a disease (in this discussion, brain tumors). Controls are subjects without the disease. Controls are chosen at random, and then matched to the cases by various factors. Typically these factors are age, gender, residential region, education and social economic status (SES). Reported odds ratios are adjusted for each of the matched factors in order to minimize confounding. Studies report both the OR and the 95% Confidence Interval (CI). 95% confidence means there is >95% confidence that the result is not due to chance. If the CI spans 1.0 it is said to be non-significant and if it does not span 1.0 it is said to be significant. The reported OR is the most likely value within the CI. Let’s suppose that there is no risk of tumors from cellphone use. What would you expect to find by examining all the ORs reported in a study, or a set of studies? If there were no risk, then regardless of the significance or non-significance, roughly half of the ORs would be elevated (OR>1.0) and roughly half would not be elevated (OR<1>1.0 and 308 had an OR<1>1.0 and 50 results with OR<1>1.0, all had >10 years of exposure with the tumor on the same side of the head where the cellphone was held. It would appear that when a cellphone is used for >10 years and the tumor is on the same side of the head where the cellphone was used, there is a significant risk of a brain tumor. As I said in the introduction, to see if a study, or a set of studies, are flawed, all you have to do is to examine the odds ratios. Out of 373 published ORs, 65 are >1.0 (20%) and 308 are <1.0 (80%). The ratio should be close to 1.0, but it is 4.8 (309/65=4.Fresco. As previously noted, of the 271 findings we would expect, about 5% to be significant findings. Yet there are 53 significant findings (14%) when the expected would be about 14 (5%). A closer examination of all the significant findings for <10 is incredulous. There are 50 significant findings with OR<1>1.0. A significant OR<1.0 indicates that cellphone use protects the user from brain tumors! There are two possible conclusions to explain this incredulity: either using a cellphone provides protection from brain tumors, or there are major flaws in the studies. Now let’s examine the 6 design flaws in the Interphone studies. Five of these flaws result in an underestimation of risk. Could this be the reason that there are 50 significant finding showing a protection and none showing a risk of brain tumors from cellphone use? Flaw 1: Selection Bias The first flaw is called selection bias. It is likely the result of the low percentage of controls that participated in the studies (weighted average of 59%). Think about being randomly selected for a cellphone study. You are told you will be asked to answer a long questionnaire. If you use a cellphone you are more likely to agree to participate than if you do not use a cellphone. If this happens it is called selection bias. Selection bias will result in an underestimation of risk. Flaw 2: Inclusion of Tumors Outside the Cellphone’s Radiation Plume The second flaw is the inclusion of all brain tumors without regard to their location. Because the cellphone’s radiation plume only penetrates a short distance into the head, nearly all of this radiation is absorbed by the temporal lobe, the acoustic nerve, or the parotid gland (not discussed in this column). Even when cellphone exposure of one side of the head is considered on the side where the cellphone was held, a substantial portion of half the brain is unexposed (the opposite side is completely unexposed). The colors in Figure 2 indicate The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of is the amount of power absorbed by brain tissue, in this discussion, brain tissue, in Watts per kilogram. The temporal lobe and the acoustic nerve, the nerve from the ear to the brain (not shown), and the parotid gland, absorb almost all of the cellphone’s radiation plume. The plume is only a small portion of the brain and is entirely on the side of the head where the cellphone is used. The depth of the cellphone’s radiation plume’s penetration is quite shallow. More that 67% of the radiation plume’s power is absorbed within an inch (2.54 cm) of the surface of the skull. Studies that include brain tumors outside of the cellphone radiation plume underestimate the risk of brain tumors. Flaw 3: Latency Time and Definition of Regular User The third flaw is the definition of "regular" cellphone use in relation to a reasonable latency time. "Regular" cellphone use is defined as use of a cellphone on average once per week for at least 6 months. Exposure within 1 year of the diagnosis date is not considered. The result of this definition, combined with the incredibly fast rate of new cellphone users, is to overweight "regular" users with, an incredibly large group of short-term users, far too short a time to expect a tumor to be diagnosed. Latency time is the time from an exposure to the diagnosis of a tumor. What we know about the latency time for brain tumors comes from ionizing radiation exposures. Based on ionizing radiation, the latency time for brain tumors is between 25 and 40 years, similar to the latency time of lung cancer from tobacco exposure. For the 9 Interphone studies, using weighted averages for cases or controls, we see that 0.61% of cases and 10% of controls have used a cellphone for 10 years or more, and 18% of cases and 21% of controls have used a cellphone for 5 years or more. The result: for a reasonable latency time, it would be unlikely to find any risk of tumors, given the percentage of cases and controls. Yet, as we saw in the Studies on the Risk of Brain Tumors from Cellphone Use section, there is a risk. "It would appear that when a cellphone is used for >10 years and the tumor is on the same side of the head where the cellphone is used, there is a significant risk of a brain tumor." Because such a large percentage of "regular" users have used a cellphone for an unreasonably short latency time the reported results for <10>10 years (6.3% of cases) are an underestimation of risk. Flaw 4: Children and Young Adults Are Not Included in Interphone Studies The Interphone Protocol states that cases be between 30 and 59 years of age. While a few studies have included cases as young as 20, the non-inclusion of <20 year olds results in an underestimation of risk. Why? Because children, with their high rate of cell division, are at higher risk of tumors than adults. As we know there a considerable proportion of cellphone use by children. And, we know that children, especially teenagers, spend more time on cellphones that do adults. Flaw 5: Cellphone’s Radiated Power It is reasonable to expect that risk of a tumor from a cellphone, after a reasonable latency time, would be the cellphone’s power multiplied by cumulative time of use. In the early days of cellphone use all cellphones used analog technology. These always radiated a fixed amount of power ( 2 Watts). Analog cellphones use has been totally displaced by digital cellphones. Digital cellphones have a feature called Automatic Power Control or APC. At the beginning of a call the cellphone radiates maximum power ( 2 Watts) but quickly reduces the power so the radiated power is sufficient to have a reliable link to the cell tower (AKA masks or base stations). The result is that cellphones radiate far less power in urban areas compared to rural areas. This is because cell phone towers are much closer in urban areas compared to rural areas so the cellphone radiates less power in urban areas and more power in rural areas. When rural and urban cellphones are not reported separately the result is an underestimation of risk. Flaw 6: Number of Cases Included in a Study The weighted average time in these 9 studies for a case to be eligible for inclusion in the study was only 2.6 years. When one considers 4 of the 5 previous flaws, it becomes obvious that such a short period of time for eligibility will result in too few cases to resolve these flaws. For example, if tumors were limited only to the exposed region of the brain then there would be far fewer cases; if a reasonably long latency time was included, again there would be far fewer cases; if children had been included there would have been more cases; and, if rural users were to be compared to the far larger number of urban users a much larger number of cases would need to be eligible to participate in the Interphone Study. Conclusion and Discussion With five flaws, each independently underestimating the risk of tumors, it is no wonder why the Interphone studies report a large number of results suggesting cellphone use protects the user from having a brain tumor. The Interphone Study has substantial funding from the cellphone industry. The additional cost to resolve these flaws could have been accomplished if the industry provided more funds. In addition if the participating countries had anticipated the potential cost of a pandemic of brain tumors, the cost effectiveness of contributing substantially more funds, would have been obvious. Lastly, relying on the cellphone industry funding is equivalent to having the fox guard the hen house. The cellphone industry will state that there is a "firewall" between their funds and the research teams who do the studies. While it is true that the cellphone industry provides the funds to another organization (UICC) which then decides on the teams that will do each study, the researchers are aware that most of their funds are coming from the cellphone industry. While I do not doubt the integrity of the researchers, I also believe there in an inherent conflict-of-interest, best described by the saying, "Don’t bite the and that feeds you." The fundamental problem is not conflict-of-interest. The fundamental problem is the Interphone Protocol. While I have no evidence, it would appear that the cellphone industry influenced the Protocol, if not actively participating in its creation. The end result is the Protocol is designed to not find any risk. That it has found a risk is sobering! Tragically, the window of time to do a large, well-designed case-control study is closed. Case-control studies require exposed and unexposed subjects. It is no longer possible to find unexposed subjects.
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Mensaje Publicado: Lun, 28 Ene 2008 10:23 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

[B]EE.UU.[/B]

Publicado en:
http://www.abc.es/20080127/sociedad-ciencia/analizara-fondo-efectos-radiofrecuencias_200801270307.html
27/01/2008

EE.UU. analizará a fondo los efectos de las radiofrecuencias sobre la salud
S. BASCO

MADRID. El peso de la opinión pública, la rápida penetración de las nuevas tecnologías de transmisión inalámbrica y, sobre todo, las dudas razonables que alberga parte de la comunidad científica han logrado que la Administración estadounidense ponga en marcha un análisis multidisciplinar en torno a los efectos de las ondas de radiofrecuencia sobre la salud.
Teléfonos móviles, ordenadores portátiles, aparatos sin cables, tecnologías inalámbricas «bluetooth» y Wi-Fi, emisiones de radio, de televisión... el mundo en que vivimos tiende a ser cada vez más un mundo sin hilos, en el que estamos expuestos cada día a centenares de fuentes emisoras de radiofrecuencias. Todo ello, sin hablar de su cada vez mayor penetración en el campo de la diagnosis médica o en la industria.

Resultados contradictorios

Desde hace quince años, centenares de informes parciales sobre sus efectos han arrojado en todo el mundo resultados contradictorios, aunque por lo general coinciden en apuntar hacia un nivel de riesgo poco relevante. Pero buena parte de los científicos, con una mentalidad extremadamente cautelosa, han estimado que los resultados cosechados hasta ahora no son concluyentes.
Como primer paso, la Agencia del Medicamento (FDA) estadounidense reunió el pasado agosto un cónclave internacional de expertos para evaluar los estudios realizados y su fiabilidad. La conclusión inmediata fue que quedan muchos aspectos por analizar. La FDA encargó entonces a la Academia Nacional de las Ciencias, a la Academia de Ingeniería y al Instituto de Medicina que elaborasen un informe exhaustivo al respecto. Dicho informe, de 66 páginas, ha sido publicado por el Consejo Nacional de Investigación (NRC) bajo el título «Identificación de las investigaciones necesarias sobre el potencial biológico y los efectos adversos para la salud de los sistemas de comunicación inalámbricos».
Entre sus conclusiones, destacan varios aspectos en los que se debe profundizar: análisis de las exposiciones de larga duración a las radiofrecuencias; estudio de los efectos de las radiaciones de baja intensidad; impacto sobre grupos humanos expuestos a campos de intensidades medias y altas; análisis de la exposición simultánea a múltiples fuentes emisoras; consecuencias concretos sobre los niños y los adolescentes por tramos de edades, y sobre las mujeres embarazadas; rango exacto de las emisiones de los diferentes tipos de aparatos y antenas; influencia de la distancia a las fuentes emisoras; efectos sobre las redes neuronales y la actividad eléctrica del cerebro -neurofísicos y cognitivos-; riesgo de desarrollar tumores; repercusiones sobre el corazón y la presión sanguínea; influencia sobre la temperatura corporal, y finalmente, efectos biofísicos y bioquímicos de las radiofrecuencias a nivel microscópico.
El NRC enumera en su informe todos aquellos campos en los que considera imprescindible profundizar: dosimetría y niveles de exposición, epidemiología -principalmente respecto a los distintos tipos de tumores-, estudios en laboratorio, mecanismos de actuación de las radiofrecuencias sobre los distintos tejidos, así como estudios en vivo e in vitro con modelos experimentales.
En cuanto a los sistemas a los que prestar más atención, el informe incluye antenas (telefonía, televisión y radio), teléfonos, ordenadores portátiles y de mesa, redes inalámbricas en domicilios, oficinas y laboratorios, así como aparatos de diagnóstico por radiofrecuencia. Los análisis multidisciplinares a realizar serán competencia de médicos e ingenieros de distintas especialidades.

Los niños, grupo de riesgo

El Consejo Nacional de Investigación, órgano asesor del gobierno estadounidense en los campos científico, tecnológico y de la salud, sugiere una especial atención en el estudio de los efectos sobre los niños, ya que, para empezar, se desconoce si son más susceptibles a este tipo de exposiciones. Podrían ser un grupo de riesgo, toda vez que se encuentran en plena fase de desarrollo de órganos y tejidos, y además porque parecen presentar un mayor Índice de Absorción Específica (SAR, unidad de medida de la cantidad de energía de radiofrecuencia absorbida por el organismo) que los adultos. Los niños empiezan a usar el teléfono móvil a edades cada vez más tempranas, por lo que su tiempo de exposición será mucho más elevado que el de quienes son adultos en la actualidad.
El informe del NRC pone especial énfasis en las antenas emisoras y en los receptores. Se han realizado múltiples estudios sobre los efectos derivados del uso del móvil sobre el cerebro, pero se recomienda analizar también sus efectos sobre otras partes del cuerpo.
Las radiofrecuencias, también denominadas espectro de radiofrecuencia o RF, son el segmento menos energético del espectro de las ondas electromagnéticas, es decir, las radiaciones con longitudes de onda comprendidas entre 3 Hz (herzios) y 300 MHz (megaherzios).

Uso generalizado

Estas radiaciones existen en la naturaleza, se desplazan a la velocidad de la luz, no necesitan un medio material para su transmisión y recorren el Universo desde su origen, pero durante las últimas décadas su uso se ha generalizado en multitud de instrumentos. Para generarlas, basta con aplicar corriente alterna a un emisor. Se emplean desde su descubrimiento para la comunicación y la transmisión de datos.
En los últimos años, la rápida penetración de la telefonía móvil ha generalizado entre la población la necesidad de conocer con detalle los posibles efectos de las radiofrecuencias sobre la salud. Entre la multitud de informes realizados, destaca el elaborado en 2007 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), cuya casi única conclusión fue que elevan la temperatura corporal de las personas expuestas. Demasiado poco. Y la Administración de los Estados Unidos ha decidido entrar a fondo en su análisis.
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Mensaje Publicado: Vie, 01 Feb 2008 5:39 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

U.K.

Publicado en:
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/cordlessPhonesBrainTumours.php
http://www.avaate.org/article.php3?id_article=1118
30/01/2008

Cordless Phones and Malignant Brain Tumours Cordless phones depend on the same microwaves that power cell phones and other wireless telecommunication and may be far more hazardous. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

Cordless phones at least as dangerous as mobile phones Cancer researchers in Sweden found strong links between malignant brain tumours and using cordless phones, which are comparable to those for using mobile phones [1, 2].

The cancer research team led by Lennart Hardell at the University of Orebro showed that people who have used mobile phones or cordless phones for more than 2 000 h are all at greatly increased risks of getting malignant brain tumours.

The odds of getting malignant brain tumours compared with those who have never used these phones - expressed as odds ratio, OR - was 5.9 times for analogue mobile phones (older type of mobile phones), 3.7 tines for digital mobile phones and 2.3 times for cordless phones. (OR of 1 indicates no increased risk compared to non-users; OR<1>1 indicates increased risk.)

For all malignant brain tumours in people who have used the phones for more than ten years, the ORs were 3.0 and 2.8 for analogue and digital mobile phones respectively, and 3.3 for cordless phones. For high-grade astrocytomas (malignant tumour of the astrocyte, a glial cell), the corresponding ORs increased further to 3.7, 3.8, and 3.9 respectively.

The risk of malignant brain tumours is increased for any phone use, regardless of how many years or hours of use. The ORs for analogue and digital mobile phones were 1.5 and 1.3 respectively, and for cordless phone, 1.3. When considering malignant tumours on the same side of the head the phone is used, the ORs rose to 2.1, 1.8, and 1.7 respectively for malignant tumours, and to 2.4, 2.3 and 2.0 respectively for high-grade astrocytomas. This is yet another indication that the tumours are associated with exposure.

These latest results were obtained by analysing the pooled data from two case control studies that yielded similar findings earlier. Pooling the data gave more cases and hence more reliable results. Altogether, there were 905 cases of malignant brain tumours, and 2 162 controls subjects matched for age and sex, and living in the same area of Sweden.

The Swedish researchers are the first team to have studied cordless phones, which depend on the same wireless technology and microwave telecommunication as mobile phones. Although cordless phone were first introduced in 1980, it did not become widely available in Sweden until the digital system was introduced in the early 1990s, and in the United States in 2000 [3]. So, while mobile phones and transmitters were grabbing the headlines (see Box), cordless phones have been silently invading our homes and workplaces.

Mobile phone links to cancers and other illnesses The link between mobile phones and transmitters to cancers and other serious illnesses were recently confirmed [4, 5] (Cancer Risks from Microwaves Confirmed, Drowning in a Sea of Microwaves, SiS 34). Mobile phone transmitters are suspects in the disappearance of birds and bees [6, 7] Mobile Phones & Vanishing Birds, Mobile Phones and Vanishing Bees, SiS 34). Numerous laboratory studies have reported effects on a wide range of biological and biochemical functions in animals, tissues, and cells [8, 9] (Mobile Phones & Brain Damage, SiS 24; Confirmed: Mobile Phones Break DNA & Scramble Genomes, SiS 25), and even an enzyme solution was affected [10] (Mobile Phone Turns Enzyme Solution into A Gel, SiS 25).

The latest to hit the press is the association between mobile phone use and tumours of the salivary gland on the same side of the head located close to where the phone is placed [11], and sleep disorders in people using the phone close to bedtime [12, 13], which impairs the body’s ability to repair daily wear and tear. This affected subjects regardless of whether they think they are ‘electro-sensitive’ or not.

Nor are microwave radiation the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has biological effects. Evidence has been accumulating since the 1950s that the entire electromagnetic spectrum may affect living organisms, and at intensities far below that which heats up the tissues [14] (Electromagnetic Fields, Leukaemia and DNA Damage, SiS 24). Such Non-Thermal Effects (SiS 17 [15]) are at the centre of the continuing controversy over the failure of regulatory guidelines to protect the public. The permitted exposure levels are set far too high, based on those that would not heat up the tissues, but are thousands, if not millions of times those known to have biological effects.

The reason organisms are sensitive to very weak electromagnetic fields is because the body itself depends on internal electric and electromagnetic fields to intercommunicate and coordinate its functions and movements [16, 17] (The Rainbow and the Worm - The Physics of Organisms 2nd Edition and Quantum Jazz, SiS 32). But this fundamental physics of organisms has so far eluded much of the mainstream scientific community [18] (The Excluded Biology, SiS 17) wedded to obsolete theories that present the organism as a mechanical contraption of molecular nuts and bolts.

The focus on mobile phones has distracted attention from the cordless phone, which has insinuated itself into positions where they could cause the most harm. Cordless phones are typically placed on the desktop or at the bedside, where people are maximally exposed to radiation intensities hundreds and thousands of times stronger than those from nearby cell phone transmitters sufficient to cause cancers. And they are emitting continuously 24 hours a day. Anecdotal evidence has been emerging of people suffering illnesses such as chronic fatigue and sleep disturbance [19], which are very similar to those from mobile phones. An experiment carried out at Landau University in Germany showed that bees failed to return to the hives when cordless phone base stations are placed in them [7].

Experts demand health warning on cordless phones The current digital enhanced cordless telephone (DECT) sold in Europe consists of one or more handsets that communicate with a base station via radio waves in the microwave range. The base station emits (broadcasts) microwave radiation at full power pulses100 times a second as long as it is plugged into the wall socket. There have been calls for health warning on DECTs [19, 20], if not an outright ban (see later).

DECTs or similar phones are now widely used throughout the world. Independent measurements have been carried out on the power of the microwaves emitted, the most thorough by Thomas Haumann (Umweltanlaytik und Baubiologie, Essen, Germany) and Peter Sierck (Environmental Testing & Technology, Inc., Encinatas, California, USA) in 2002 [21] They found a maximum power density of over 600 000 mW/m2 at the normal distance of 1 foot (0.3 m) if the base station is placed on an office desk or bedside table. The peak radiation values in the same room are higher than those from any mobile phone transmitters that are located near residential buildings. The background level (in the absence of the DECT base station) was <0.3 mW/m2.

The DFHSS (Digital Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) phone sold in the US was almost identical to the DECT in Europe. Both are pulsed at 100 Hz. The DFHSS runs on the frequency range of 2 450 MHz and DECT on 1 880 MHz.

The detailed measurements on the DFHSS base station are comparable to those made on DECT base stations in Germany in 1996 (see Table 1 [21]).

The maximum power density levels in the entire house were also quite high (see Table 2 [21]), compared with radiation levels in homes near mobile phone transmission towers, about 10-1 000mW/m2 measured in the UK [23].

These power density levels are legal and considered ‘safe’, according to current regulatory guidelines, which are 10 000 to over 1 000 000 times those recommended by expert bodies on the basis of studies demonstrating biological effects at power densities orders or magnitude below the legal limits.

Many European physicians, environmental professionals and toxicologists signed a Resolution calling for the immediate stop of the DECT technology, which was delivered to the Germany Environment Minister Mr. Jurgen Trittin in October 1999 [24].

DECT microwaves are potentially more harmful than those of other wireless technologies because the microwaves are delivered at maximum power density all the time, even when the phone is not in use; it is pulsed at 100 Hz well within the range of typical biochemical rhythms within the body, and users are typically exposed at maximum levels either throughout their working day or during their sleep. Chronic exposure to such a powerful, pulsed form of the radiation from DECT base stations is more harmful than either acute exposure or exposure to a constant (non-pulsed) radiation. Pulsed radiation, in which the electric component changes from zero to full power almost instantaneously induces a much more powerful magnetic field that can fully penetrate the body (to induce a correspondingly large electric current) than the more slowly changing non-pulsed field.

Wireless broadband routers also strong emitters of microwaves Wireless broadband routers (‘Home Hubs’) and modems are also strong emitters of microwaves, and like DECT base stations, emit constantly at full power density.

People who have installed broadband in their homes and workplaces recently should beware; even though you have not asked for the wireless option, and you are not using wireless, the router is likely to be actively emitting microwaves, unless you specifically disable it. Similarly, if your computer comes with the wireless modem and you are not going to use wireless, you need to disable the wireless option.

Low radiation cordless phone now available Cordless phones need not have such high power, nor do they need to be on all the time, as one cordless phone maker has shown. Orchid has responded to people’s health concerns by redesigning the cordless phone. The company has now produced its third generation ‘low radiation’ DECT that emits nothing when the phone is not in use and when in use, adjusts the power output depending on how far away the base station is from the handset. Thus, if the call is made up to several metres from the base station, the power output is automatically reduced by as much as 75 percent. In addition, there is a switch to permanently reduce the power output by 75 percent regardless of the distance, for people who are electrosensitive. The company Rowtex Limited has taken over the sales and distribution of all Orchid Low Radiation cordless phones in the UK, see www.lowradiation.net.
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Mensaje Publicado: Vie, 01 Feb 2008 5:45 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

Publicado en:
http://www.bbemg.ulg.ac.be/FR/3CEMSante/BBEMG2007(4)FR.pdf
(études publiées pendant le quatrième trimestre 2007)

Revues des études épidémiologiques analysant les effets sur la santé des champs
électriques et magnétiques de fréquence extrêmement basse


Par le Dr. Maurits De Ridder
Unité de recherche en santé publique et médecine du travail
Université de Gand


Exposition résidentielle

RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION LINES AND RISK OF
LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE AND MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS: A CASE-CONTROL

STUDY.
[Exposition résidentielle aux lignes de transport de l’électricité et risque de troubles lympho- et myéloprolifératif : une étude cas-témoin.]
Lowenthal RM, Tuck DM, Bray IC.
Intern Med J. 2007; 37: 614-619.
Des études ont montré une association entre les champs électromagnétiques et la leucémie infantile. L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer s’il existe un risque accru de troubles lymphoprolifératifs (LPD) ou myéloprolifératifs (MPD) associé au fait d’habiter jusqu’à 300m de lignes à haute tension.
Une étude cas-témoin a été menée sur 854 patients âgés de 0 à 94 ans,
diagnostiqués avec LPD ou MPD (incluant leucémie, lymphome et maladies
apparentées), comprenant tous les cas diagnostiqués en Tasmanie entre 1972 et 1980. Les contrôles ont été individuellement appariés pour le sexe et l’âge
approximatif au moment du diagnostic.
En comparaison avec les personnes qui ont toujours vécu à plus de 300m d’une ligne à haute tension, ceux qui ont toujours vécu dans les 50m avaient un odd ratio (OR) de 2,06 (intervalle de confiance à 95% : 0,87-4,91) de développer LPD ou MPD (basé sur 768 paires cas-témoins adultes); ceux qui ont vécu entre 50 et 300m avaient un OR de 1,30 (0,88-1,91). Les adultes qui ont vécu dans les 300m d’une ligne à haute tension pendant les 15 premières années de vie avaient un risque triplé (OR 3,23; 1,26-8,29); ceux qui ont vécu dans les mêmes distances entre 0 et 5 ans avaient un risque quintuplé (OR 4,74; 0,98-22,9). Ces associations étaient plus fortes après répétition des analyses sur un groupe de 201 paires ayant toujours vécu en Tasmanie.
Conclusion: Bien que reconnaissant que cette étude présente des limitations, les résultats soulèvent l’éventualité d’un risque accru de développement ultérieur d’un MPD et LPD chez les personnes vivant de manière prolongée à proximité des lignes à haute tension, particulièrement dans les premières années de la vie.
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Mensaje Publicado: Mar, 05 Feb 2008 5:27 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

Alemania

Estudio epidemiológico de la incidencia de cáncer alrededor de una antena de telefonía / Estudio completo en alemán:

Umweltepidemiologische Untersuchung der Krebsinzidenz in den Gemeinden Hausmannstätten & Vasoldsberg

Fuente:
http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Krebsstudie_Hausmannstatten_Vasoldsberg_2008_-_OBERFELD.pdf
04/02/2008
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Mensaje Publicado: Mie, 06 Feb 2008 7:40 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

Madrid

Publicado en:
http://www.elpais.com/articulo/futuro/Medidas/vivo/cambian/calculo/efecto/campos/magneticos/elpepusocfut/20080206elpepifut_7/Tes
MALEN RUIZ DE ELVIRA - Madrid - 06/02/2008

Medidas en vivo cambian el cálculo del efecto de campos magnéticos

No es lo mismo calcular el efecto de un campo magnético sobre los distintos elementos de un organismo -en forma de corriente eléctrica que los recorre- cuando éste está vivo que cuando está muerto. Es la conclusión a la que ha llegado un estudio de científicos y médicos españoles, que han efectuado los primeros experimentos concluyentes en vivo de las corrientes inducidas por campos magnéticos sobre animales de experimentación, en este caso cerdos. Los valores obtenidos de conductividad de los distintos órganos y sistemas del cuerpo resultan sistemáticamente mayores que los de los modelos que se venían utilizando en el mundo hasta ahora.

La razón es que estos valores se obtenían de órganos extraídos tras la muerte, cuyas características eléctricas son distintas por la degradación que sufren, creen los especialistas españoles, del Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado Salvador Velayos (IMASV) y el hospital Puerta de Hierro de Madrid. Con estos datos se ha elaborado un modelo numérico para el cerdo. Extrapolando estos experimentos al cuerpo humano se ha obtenido el objetivo final del proyecto, encargado por Red Eléctrica de España: la propuesta de un modelo para el cuerpo humano que permita, con simulaciones, comprobar que los operarios no van a estar sometidos a corrientes superiores a las recomendadas por los organismos internacionales.

Los campos magnéticos de los que estamos rodeados continuamente representan un riesgo potencial, que la sociedad quiere minimizar, a pesar de que su efecto sobre la salud no ha sido demostrado. Por el principio de precaución, en Europa se han establecido recomendaciones para limitar la exposición, en forma de topes máximos para la corriente inducida por el campo magnético en el cuerpo humano (10 miliamperios por metro cuadrado) y para el campo magnético en sí (500 microteslas).
El cuerpo humano está compuesto en su mayor parte por líquido con iones en disolución (técnicamente un electrolito). Los campos electromagnéticos de baja frecuencia pero alta intensidad dan lugar a la aparición de corrientes eléctricas inducidas, con el consiguiente aumento de temperatura y, en casos extremos, a la alteración de los potenciales que regulan el funcionamiento del corazón o los impulsos nerviosos, explican los científicos. En el modelo se han representado los órganos principales: cerebro, corazón, pulmones, riñones, hígado y médula, así como los sistemas circulatorio y nervioso central.

A pesar de que la densidad de corriente inducida real en los distintos órganos es superior, según estos experimentos, a la que se manejaba hasta ahora en la mayoría de los modelos, no sobrepasa en ningún caso (para el campo electromagnético máximo), los valores recomendados, explica Guillermo Rivero, del IMASV, que ha dirigido el proyecto. Solamente en la médula espinal y en una situación específica de exposición se alcanza el límite.
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Registrado: 23 marzo 2006
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Mensaje Publicado: Lun, 11 Feb 2008 2:30 pm Responder citandoVolver arriba

Francia

Noticia completa en:
http://actualidad.terra.es/nacional/articulo/ondas_moviles_generan_molecula_estres_2239557.htm
09/02/2008


Ondas de móviles generan una molécula de estrés en las plantas de tomate


Las ondas de los teléfonos móviles producen en las plantas de tomates la secreción de unas moléculas de estrés, según las conclusiones de un estudio francés, para cuyos autores es una muestra del carácter perturbador para esos organismos vivos.

'No se puede concluir con certeza que es perjudicial, pero perturba el organismo de la planta al generar moléculas que no aparecen más que cuando está enferma o mustia, y eso no puede ser bueno', sintetizó el profesor Gérard Ledoigt, responsable del equipo de investigación, en declaraciones publicadas hoy por 'Le Parisien'.

Ledoigt, que trabaja en la Universidad Blaise-Pascal de Clermont Ferrand, en el centro de Francia, precisó que ese tipo de secreciones se producen cuando las tomateras sufren sequía o heladas, por lo que las plantas interpretan las ondas de los celulares como un peligro.

El experto del Equipo de Investigación sobre la Transducción y la Auto-vigilancia Celular (ERTAC), que utiliza organismos vegetales para poner a prueba la acción de diversas moléculas o situaciones potencialmente peligrosas, señaló que las ondas térmicas de los móviles son comparables a las de los microondas, de las que ya se conoce su naturaleza irritante.

En ese sentido, basta con alejar del cuerpo las antenas, que en el caso de los teléfonos calientan los oídos y, por extensión la cabeza.

Pero la cuestión con este trabajo era empezar a conocer los efectos de las ondas electromagnéticas, que en principio se consideraban neutras, pero que han puesto en evidencia que provocan una reacción en las plantas.

'Ahora vamos a verificar el efecto del móvil sobre las células madre humanas de piel', avanzó el científico francés.

A la vista de este nuevo estudio, la ministra francesa de Sanidad, Roselyne Bachelot, ha reiterado el mensaje que ya hizo públicos su departamento en la campaña de Navidad, en una entrevista hoy al propio 'Le Parisien'.

'Hoy no hay ninguna prueba científica de la peligrosidad del teléfono móvil. Pero no se puede excluir un riesgo' y por eso 'hay que utilizar el móvil de una forma razonable: no demasiado tiempo y evitar equipar a los niños', indicó Bachelot.
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